HEART RATE, MOOD STATES, AND RATING OF PERCEIVED EXERTION AMONG ELDERLY SUBJECTS DURING 3.5 HOURS OF RECREATIONAL ALPINE SKIING

Sabine Krautgasser, Peter Scheiber, Serge P. von Duvillard, Erich Müller

Abstract


A decline in physiological functioning and mental wellbeing is common with advancing age. However, these changes may vary among elderly individuals. Physical activity and the response of the elderly to exercise during recreational activities, i.e., recreational alpine skiing, may serve as a catalyst for the improvement of wellbeing and general health. Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess the heart rate (HR) response modulations in a group of elderly recreational alpine skiers during 3.5h of skiing. In addition, each group’s perceived responses of mood state (MS) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected to determine possible contributions to changes in wellbeing as a result of recreational skiing. Methods: Forty-nine healthy elderly participants (mean age: 63±6 yrs, weight: 75.4+13.1 kg, height: 170.5+9.1 cm, BMI: 26+3.2) with at least basic alpine skiing ability participated in a 3.5h ski test. GPS data (GPS Garmin Forerunner 301) were used to monitor altitude and HR and were recorded continuously during the 3.5h of skiing. During skiing, participants were asked at three different times to report RPE and MS. Results: The time spent on the lift during the 3.5h skiing ranged from 21-58% followed by recovery breaks of 17-53% and time spent in downhill skiing ranged from 12-40%. Participants completed 9-23 downhill runs in 3.5h. Average intensities during 3.5 h downhill runs for over 80% of the group were between 50-80% of maximal heart rate (HRmax) (220-age). Peak heart rate (HRpeak) values during downhill runs for 35% of the group were between 60-70% of HRmax. Statistical analysis revealed numerous significant differences between RPE and MS values for the three different sampling times. The MS in general remained positive and even increased in the categories of happiness and sociability despite an increase in fatigue. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the duration and intensity of skiing was appropriate and yielded immediate positive psychological effects on the elderly subjects. Furthermore, recreational alpine skiing has a positive effect on MS ratings reflecting wellbeing, while generating age-appropriate moderate RPE values in elderly alpine skiers.

Full Text:

PDF

References


American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand (1998). The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and flexibility in healthy adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(6), 975–991.

Borg G. (1985). An introduction to Borg´s RPE-Scale. New York: Movement Publications.

Burtscher, M., Faulhaber, M., Kornexl, E., & Nachbauer, W. (2005). Cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses during mountain hiking and downhill skiing. Wiener Medizinische Wochenzeitschrift, 155(7–8), 129–135.

Burtscher, M. (2007). Risk of cardiovascular events during mountain activities. Advanced Experimental Medicine and Biology, 618, 1–11.

Cancella Carall J. M., Ayan Perez, C. (2007). Effects of High-Intensity Combined Training on Women over 65. Gerontology, 53(6), 102–108.

Dahlhaus, J. (2004). Motivation und Motivierung zum Alterssport. Dissertation zur Erlangung des sozialwissenschaftlichen Doktorgrades, Georg-August-Fakultät Göttingen. Retrieved from http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2004/dahlhaus/dahlhaus.pdf.

Faulhaber, M., Flatz, M., & Burtscher, M. (2007a). Frequency of cardiovascular disease among mountaineers in the Austrian Alps. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(1), 78–81.

Faulhaber, M., Flatz, M., Gatterer, H., Schobersberger, W., & Burtscher, M. (2007b). Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among alpine skiers and hikers in the Austrian Alps. High Altitude Medicine and Biology, 8(3), 245–252.

Grosser, M., Starischka, S., & Zimmermann, E. (2001). Das neue Konditionstraining. München: BLV.

Hackford, D., & Schlattmann, A. (1995). Die Stimmungs- und Befindlichkeitsskalen (SBS). In Arbeitsinformation Sportwissenschaften (Heft 7), Neubiberg. München: Universität der Bundeswehr.

Hollman, W., & Hettinger, T. (2000). Sportmedizin Grundlagen für Arbeit, Training und Präventivmedizin. Stuttgard, New York: Schattauer.

Israel, S. (1995). Grundprinzipien der biologischen Adaptionin. In G. Badtke (Ed.), Lehrbuch der Sportmedizin 3. Auflage (pp. 1–4). Heidelberg-Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth.

Kahn, J. F., & Jouanin, J. C. (1996). Physiological effects of downhill skiing at moderate altitude in untrained middle-aged men. Wilderness Environmental Medicine, 7(3), 199–207.

Karvonen, J., & Vuorimaa, T. (1988). Heart Rate and Exercise Intensity during Sports Activities Practical Applications. Sports Medicine, 5, 303–311.

Kirchner, G., & Schaller, H. J. (1996). Motorisches Lernen im Alter Grundlagen und Anwendungsperspektiven. Aachen: Meyer und Meyer.

Krautgasser, S., Scheiber, P., Kröll. J., Ring-Dimitriou, S., & Müller, E. (2009). Incluence of physical fitness on individual strain during recreational skiing in the elderly. In E. Müller et al. (Eds.), Science in Skiing IV (pp. 310–319). Maidenhead, UK: Meyer & Meyer Sport.

Olbrich, E. (1992). Das Kompetenzmodell des Alterns. In J. Settbarn, J. Reggentin, & H. Reggentin (Eds.), Neue Wege in der Bildung Älterer: Band I. Theoretische Grundlagen und Konzepte (pp. 53–61). Freiburg: Lambertus.

Olbrich, E. (1987). Kompetenz im Alter. Zeitschrift für Gerontologie, 20, 319–330.

Pahlke, U. (1995). Entwicklung sportlicher Fähigkeiten. In G. Badtke (Ed.), Lehrbuch der Sportmedizin 3 (pp. 360–362). Auflage; Heidelberg-Leipzig, Johann Ambrosius Barth.

Prokop, L., & Bachl, N. (2002). Alterssportmedizin. Wien: Springerverlag.

Samitz, G, & Mensink, G. (Eds.) (2002). Körperliche Aktivität in Prävention und Therapie. München: Marseille Verlag.

Scheiber, P., Krautgasser, S., von Duvillard, S. P, & Müller, E. (2009). Physiologic responses of older recreational alpine skiers to different skiing modes. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 105, 551–558.

Seifert, J., Kröll, J., & Müller, E. (2008). Cumulative muscle fatigue during recreational alpine skiing. In E. Müller et al. (Eds.), Science in Skiing IV (pp. 465–478). Maidenhead, UK: Meyer & Meyer Sport.

Vater, H., Nowacki, P. E., Röder, Y., Vater, K. U., Härtel, S., Neumann, R., et al. (2005). Kardiorespiratorische und metabolische Parameter beim Alpinen Skilauf und beim Tourenskilauf in einer kombinierten Labor-und Feldstudie. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin, 56(7/8), 248.

Wörndle, W. (2007). Alpiner Skilauf. In Snowsport Austria-Die österreichische Skischule (pp. 23–88). Purkersdorf, Austria: Hollinek.

Zintl, F., & Eisenhut, A. (2001). Ausdauertraining. München: BLV Verlagsgesellschaft.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Sabine Krautgasser, Peter Scheiber, Serge P. von Duvillard, Erich Müller

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.